BEST SELF-DEFENSE HANDGUN AND CALIBER
By Richard E. “Rick” Dennis CPP
August 23, 2020
© August 2020 – All Rights Reserved
REVOLVER OR SEMI-AUT0
As a former Drug Enforcement Special Agent and U.S. Army Military Veteran, during the Vietnam War, I’ve had the personal opportunity and experience of being in a vast array of combat situations (gun fights) as well as simulated gunfights and with a variety of weapons – both Military and Law Enforcement issued. In the Army, I was issued an M14 Select-Fire Assault Rifle as well as an M16 Select-Fire Assault Rifle. The M14 fired the 7.62 X 51 NATO round and the M16 fired the 5.56 X 45 NATO. The actual definition of an assault rifle differs from the false identity and moniker the news media defines an assault rifle. The look-a-like variant, or the AR15 style is actually a semi-auto (only) rifle and is styled after the M16 Military Assault Rifle. . However, the Military Assault Rifle is capable of two specific functions the look-a-like variant isn’t. With the flip of a select-fire-switch, it can operate as a semi-auto firing weapon, which requires a single trigger pull to fire each round, or as a fully automatic firing weapon which requires a single pull of the trigger pull to sustain continuous automatic rapid firing.
In civilian use: Fully automatic weapons are illegal, except when a tax stamp is obtained from the ATF. After the Army, I joined a Drug Enforcement Group and was issued a standard Smith and Wesson Double Action Model 10 38 Special Service Revolver and an Ithaca 12 gauge 5 shot pump shotgun . In that era, the only semi-auto pistol available to the law enforcement professional was the Smith and Wesson Model 39 Single-Stack 9MM and the single action - single stack 1911 style 45 semi-auto pistol. However, both were prohibited for law enforcement use as were the 9MM and 45 ACP calibers they were chambered in. Another reason the Smith & Wesson Model 39 was prohibited was due to its constant jamming issues. The Smith 39 was designated as the “jam-o-matic” by the law enforcement community.
In the late 1970’s law enforcement relaxed their attitude on caliber variations and firearms styles. Instead of just one firearm style and one caliber, the selection was expanded to include the 9MM, 45 ACP and 38 Special calibers. The firearms of choice included the standard double action revolver chambered in the 38 Special cartridge, the double action Sig 226 semi-auto in 9MM and the 1911 style semi-auto chambered for the time tested 45 ACP and 9MM cartridges. The drawback to the 1911 style semi-auto is that is had to be carried cocked and locked which means the hammer had to be cocked with the safety on. Prior to carry, each officer was required to qualify with the weapon and caliber, of choice, on the Practical Police Pistol Course which included firing 100 rounds of approved duty ammo.
BEST COMBAT WEAPON: SEMI-AUTO OR DOUBLE ACTION REVOLVER
First-of-all, pick a firearm that correctly fits your hand size. Second, pick a handgun that capable of performing the desired task it’s purchased for. For all practical self-defense and combat situations, the double action revolver is the best choice, from a myriad factors. 1) the double action revolver is a simple weapon consisting of a frame, a cylinder holding 5 or 6 centerfire cartridges, a hammer or hammerless design, and a trigger. With each pull of the trigger the cylinder rotates and loads a new cartridge to a new firing position. For more accurate shooting, the hammer can be cocked prior to each firing. When the hammer is cocked, it eliminates the movement of the revolver which is experienced when the trigger (only), i.e., double action mode is used to fire the weapon, and 2) because it’s simple and virtually fail safe, there’s no safety to disengage before firing, no failure to feed or failure to eject jams which are experienced with semi-auto’s, and all the shooter has to do is draw the weapon, acquire the target, and pull the trigger.
Alone, this simplicity takes all of the guess work out of an already stressful situation. Remember, the decision to shoot or not to shoot is measured in milliseconds and not minutes or hours. Therefore, with the semi-auto the novice is handicapped in gunfight by trying to fumble around and feel for the safety to disengage it. A normal gunfight is over in 2 seconds or less – from start to finish. Time wasted trying to ready your weapon for firing, can mean the difference in surviving or death. The only drawback to a revolver is: It’s limited to 5 or 6 shots. However, the individuals purchasing a revolver only for self-defense purposes won’t find this much of a handicap. Speed loaders can be purchased, enabling the shooter to rapidly reload the firearm.
For the record, revolvers are also made in the single action design, which requires the manual cocking of the hammer before a new cartridge is fired. When the hammer is cocked, the cylinder rotates to a new firing position. However, by modern standards, this type of action is antiquated and isn’t usable or practicable for all types of combat situations encountered during a self-defense experience.
SEMI-AUTOS – SINGLE AND DOUBLE ACTION
Semi-auto pistols are designed in four varieties: Single Action, Double Action, Hammer Fired, and Striker Fired. However, each firearm type shares the same commonality, e.g., they are of the John Browning blowback design, except when it’s gas operated, and they all can jam.
Single Action Hammer Fired: This semi-auto is designed after the 1911 or John Browning style, where the hammer has to be cocked prior to firing the first round. Thereafter, each firing is accomplished with a single trigger pull until the magazine is empty.
Double Action Hammer Fired. This semi-auto is capable of two firing sequences. The first is: The trigger is completely pulled to fire the first shot, which automatically cocks and releases the hammer reading the firearm for the next shot. Thereafter, the firearm is capable of firing with each trigger pull.
Double Action – Single Action Capability. This semi-auto is capable of firing in the foregoing sequence as well as cocking the pistols hammer prior to firing the first round. After the first shot, the pistol is capable of firing with each trigger pull, until the magazine is empty.
Striker Fired Semi-Auto Pistol. The striker fired pistol is a hammerless design and was developed by Glock Firearms. A spring surrounds the firing pin. When the the pistols slide is moved rearward, the firing pin spring is partially cocked. When the pistols trigger is pulled it cocks the firing pin spring the rest of the way and releases the firing pin to strike the cartridge primer. The problem with the striker fired semi-auto is: Overtime, the firing pin spring becomes weak with normal use and has to be replaced to make the firearm reliable, or the shooter will experience light primer strikes and can make the firearm nonfunctional. However, this requires thousands of rounds through the auto, before this becomes an issue.
Semi-Auto Reliability Issues. The main issue with the semi-auto pistol is reliability. A failure to feed or a failure to eject a fired round will result in the semi-auto becoming inoperable. This is the last thing you need in a close-quarter gunfight. In order to clear the jam, the user has to rack the slide back on the firearm, clear the jam, and chamber a new round before the weapon is again, fully functional. Most semi-auto jams are related to the ammunition design used in a specific model firearm, the barrel feed ramp, as well as the magazine itself. A jamming issue could be something as simple as a weak magazine spring. Also, the semi-auto can become an issue with senior Americans and women who has weak hand strength and grip. This will cause the user to have a difficult time – loading, unloading, and clearing a jam when necessary.
AMMUNITION CALIBERS AND REQUIRED FIRING CAPACITY
Picking a firearm, a firearm caliber, and the number of rounds the firearm is capable of holding and firing is an individual choice. Some new firearm purchasers may think they need a semi-auto capable of firing 6 to 17 times. Others may opt for a 5 or 6 shot revolver. However, it doesn’t matter which firearm an individual chooses as long as the individual can become proficient in loading, unloading, clearing a jam, and shooting the firearm with proficiency and accuracy under a variety of conditions. Another factor to consider is confidence. The shooter must have absolute confidence in the firearm and caliber he or she opts to carry or have at home for self-defense purposes. However, when it comes to recoil sensitive shooters - the caliber is a specific matter of concern.
It’s a handicap for the first-time firearm purchaser to select a firearm he or she isn’t capable of shooting and operating proficiently. Why pick a 45 ACP semi-auto when you’re only capable of shooting a 22 caliber handgun proficiently. For the first-time firearms purchaser, it’s better to locate a firing range that rents handguns, in various calibers, and try them out prior to making your final decision. Another handicap, is determined whether or not a firearm owner has picked a caliber that he or she will not be able to afford to purchase ammo for, in order to practice with and become proficient with.
FBI GUNFIGHT STATISTICS
FBI statistics indicate, the usual distance for a gunfight is 7 – 10 feet. PMA statistics suggests the average distance, at around 20 feet. This makes sense, as distance will favor the person with the most training. In a very stressful situation, the shooter which is able to control their emotions and has the most shooting experience has the best opportunity to survive a close quarter gunfight. The last thing the inexperienced shooter should be faced with is fumbling around trying to get the safety off while an assailant is advancing or shooting at you.
After purchasing your firearm, the first thing the new firearms owner should do is to enroll in a gun safety course and learn how to operate and store your firearm safely. If your intention is to apply for a concealed carry license, the second thing you should do is enroll in a firearms course with a certified firearms instructor.
As the old saying, “It’s better to own a firearm, know how to use it, and never need it than it is not to own a firearm and one day need one”
“UNTIL NEXT TIME, KEEP EM BETWEEN THE BRIDLE”
5 HORSES BUTCHERED NEAR TEXAS TOWN, SINCE MAY
By Richard E. “Rick” Dennis CPP
Freelance Writer and Author
July 13, 2020
© 2020 All Rights Reserved
Over-the-years, U.S. based law enforcement agencies have documented and investigated horses being stolen and slaughtered in the U.S., for their meat. In a myriad cases, the slaughter either happened on the horse owners property, or the animal was taken a short distance away and slaughtered in the dead of night. Either way, it’s been proven - the rendered product (horse meat) was either for human consumption or it was being sold on the black market in the U.S. for the same reason. A grim reminder of horses being slaughtered in the U.S. for meat is realized in a December 13, 2019 news article, by Emilee Speck, which begins with a bold headline: 3 HORSES SLAUGHTERED IN FLORIDA, A REMINDER OF AMERICA’S HISTORY WITH HORSE MEAT. The article continues:
ORLANDO, Fla. – After horses in three Florida counties were slaughtered law enforcement officers are investigating a potential black market for horse meat, reports CBS affiliate WTSP, and animal rights groups warn horses in the U.S. are not safe to eat because they are not raised to be food.
Most recently, Tamara Weaver, of Sumterville, said her 10-year-old horse, Jayda, was found dead Wednesday across the street from where she was boarded. Weaver said the fence had been cut and evidence at the scene suggested that whoever was responsible was seeking the horse’s meat.
In November, News 6 spoke with a family in Marion County after their horse was found dead. The family believes their horse was also slaughtered for its meat.
A third horse death was reported Dec. 1 in Manatee County.
It’s unconfirmed at this point if the horse deaths are related, however, the Sumter County Sheriff’s Office put out a warning to equestrian owners this week.
Headlines like this, is a stark reminder that horses are illegally being taken, slaughtered, and their meat is either being used for human consumption or it’ sold on the black market, in the U.S. However, as we all know: the slaughtering of horses in the U.S. for human consumption is illegal. The horse slaughter plants in the U.S. have long been closed and the chance of them ever reopening is, at best, very slim or non-existent.
Even though, in the United States, horse slaughter for human consumption is illegal it doesn’t prevent horse “Kill Pen Operators” from loading up a trailer load of horses and trucking them across the Mexican and Canadian borders to slaughter plants for processing and deportation of horse meat to European and Asian markets.
In an August 10, 2020 Fort Worth Star Telegram news article, the author - Michell Willetts writes: 5 horses butchered near Texas town since May - and police think someone’s eating them.
At least five horses have been killed around Pearland, Texas since late May — but it’s the way they’re being killed and what’s being done to their carcasses that’s particularly disturbing to locals.
Pearland police made their first discovery June 10. Responding to an animal cruelty call along the 14000 block of Kirby Drive, they found a horse, dead and butchered.
Police told the property owner, Jason Bockel, that they had never seen anything like it, FOX 26 Houston reported.
“They were just speechless,” he said.
His son Tyler was the first to see the dead horse. He went out that morning to feed the horses, Goldie and Sugar, and found them tied to a tree. The killer — or killers — picked Goldie and spared Sugar.
“I hit the ground immediately, she was butchered. She was murdered,” the son told FOX 26. “Nobody should ever have to go through that and see what I seen.”
Goldie had been stabbed in the chest, according to police. After bleeding to death, the horse’s backstrap, and front and hind quarters were removed — cuts that lead police to believe Goldie was killed for her meat.
Police discovered the two latest killings Saturday.
The owner called police after noticing the animals were missing, and that fencing along their property had been cut. The horses were found half a mile away, butchered just like Goldie.
Two more horses have been reported slaughtered in nearby jurisdictions, Pearland police says. One on May 22, the earliest known incident, and another June 29.
Given the similarity and proximity of the killings, police told KHOU that the same person or group of people is likely responsible for all five deaths. To read the entire article click on the following link:
Read more here: https://www.star-telegram.com/news/nation-world/national/article244866042.html#storylink=cpy
BUTCHERING PROCESS MIMICS BIG GAME HUNTING PROCESS OF: “FIELD DRESSING AND BUTCHERING IN REMOTE WILDERNESS AREAS”
The butchering process described by the author, is the same process big game hunters use to pack large downed animals such as deer, moose, and elk out of remote wilderness hunting areas. The method is quick, simple, and productive. The entire operation is performed without entering the interior body cavity of the animal. The skin of the animal is laid back, the choice meat is removed, e.g., front shoulders, tenderloin, and hindquarters and placed in game bags for transport, by pack animal, or human transport - leaving the remaining carcass and remnants for the scavengers. Remote wilderness hunting is usually performed on horseback and using mules, donkeys, and Llamas as the transport animals.
EXTREME CAUTION IS ADVISED FOR TODAY’S HORSE OWNERS
Today, it’s advisable for the recreational or professional horse owner to implement safe guards and prudent security practices to ensure the safety of their horses. If at all possible pastured horses should be stalled in a barn at night. Horses located on remote property should be checked on regularly. If possible, Closed Circuit TV security cameras should be installed in order to monitor the horses on the property as well as capturing the identity of any trespassers. CCTV cameras can be purchased over the internet and the installation instructions are readily available to the purchaser.
Also, posting signs, on perimeter fencing and gates, stating “Premises under CCTV surveillance” or “Premises secured by Security Surveillance Cameras” is another good method of deterring would-be violators from crossing the fence and stealing your horses and butchering them for meat. Having dogs on your premises to alert you to the presence of an intruder is another way to secure your property. Another security method, is to contact law enforcement when your going to be out of town and ask them for periodic security checks. Another excellent security method, is to organize a neighborhood watch service where neighbor takes care of neighbor, or your horse may be the next victim.
“UNTIL NEXT TIME, KEEP EM BETWEEN THE BRIDLE”
PERSONAL DEFENSE FIREARMS
By Richard E. “Rick” Dennis CPP
August 5, 2020
© August 2020 All Rights Reserved
GOVERNMENT BACKGROUND-CHECK DATA SHOWS STRONG AND GROWING DEMAND DRIVING NEW 2020 FIREARM SALES.
The Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) are reporting: As of July 13, 2020, or in the first six months of 2020, 19 Million firearms have been sold in the United States. The Brookings Institute reports: “There are more guns than people in the United States ( 400 million are in circulation for a population of 330 million people.) This represents, 1 firearm for every 20 Americans.” The types of self-defense weapons designs include: Long guns (rifles and shotguns), revolvers, and semi-auto pistols. Basically, any weapon type which can be used for self-defense purposes. Black powder weapons, were excluded.
As the run on firearms purchases continues and increases – ammunition, on dealers shelves is either non-existent or in short supply. The vast number of firearms and ammunition purchases are directly attributable to the uncertainty of individual safety existing in our society, and the fear gripping the average American due to the Covid 19 pandemic. An uncertain future, is being driven by the news media’s ever constant - daily and hourly reporting, of anarchy and instability in the United States. Rioters, looters, and anarchists, are burning buildings, taking over government buildings – including Police Precincts, and assaulting, maiming, and killing American citizens and Law Enforcement officers.
Extremist groups like Black Lives Matters (BLM) and ANTIFA as well as their members are terrorizing the general populous of the United States under the guise of protesting racial inequality. An example of BLM’s violent extremist intentions can be realized in one of their promoted slogans: “KILL A WHITE ON SIGHT, THEIR SILENCE IS VIOLENCE,” However, their actions and violent extremist slogans are having a reverse effect. Instead of cowering in fear, American citizens are arming-up to protect themselves, their property, and loved ones.
AMERICAN CITIZENS FEAR FOR THEIR SAFETY AND THE SAFETY OF THEIR LOVED ONES
Another factor driving the upsurge of firearms and ammunition sales can be contributed to various government members, in control of the Democratic run cities and towns, who are unwilling to control its lawlessness by refusing to arrest rioters, looters, and anarchists. Instead of enforcing the rule of law, politicians are instructing law enforcement personnel to stand-down, during rioting and looting events. Citizens are no longer resolute, law enforcement can protect them. In simple terminology, these criminal actions can only be described as “mob rule” and are nothing more than domestic terrorists activities. It’s also being reported, these individuals are being paid for their lawless actions, by individuals, and organizations with an ominous agenda for the USA. The emerging sad commentary is: common criminals are martyred and revered while law enforcement personnel are vilified.
The daily news cycles are filled with Democratic politicians and members of these domestic terrorists groups, INCLUDING MEMBERS OF CONGRESS, demanding the defunding of police agencies across America and siding with lawless anarchists. In major U.S. cities; like Portland, Oregon, large swaths of real estate are being over-run and taken over by these self-proclaimed anarchists. Makeshift self-established rogue governments are replacing existing legal authority with anarchists, to occupy and govern these areas - known as, autonomous zones.
In reality, autonomous zones are nothing more than anarchist operated crime infested areas where the rule of law is ignored, business owners and residents are being extorted and citizens are being assaulted, raped, and murdered. Today, our country more aptly resembles a third world country than the United States of America. Democratic leaders identity the anarchists as peaceful protestors and elevate their stature to “hero status. However, rioters, looters, and anarchists promoting violence aren’t – peaceful protestors, no matter how hard Democratic politicians and the news media promotes this false narrative.
SELF-DEFENSE FIREARMS CLASSIFICATIONS
Self-Defense firearms come in a myriad varieties: Double and Single Action Revolvers, Double and Single Action Semi-Auto Pistols, Single Shot, Semi-Auto, Pump Action, and Fixed Breech shotguns, and bolt, pump, single shot, and semi-auto rifles. Revolvers are chambered in either rim fire or center fire ammunition. Centerfire revolvers are capable of being loaded with 5 or 6 shots. Rim fire revolvers and semi-auto pistols are capable of holding significantly more rounds.
The black rife or the AR 15 is the most popular rifle in America and is a favorite among citizens, for self-defense.
SELF-DEFENSE AMMUNITION TYPE, CALIBERS, AND GAUGES
Revolver and pistol calibers range from the diminutive 22 caliber rim fire cartridge, to the centerfire pistol cartridges capable of firing a myriad popular calibers ranging from: 5.7 X 28, 25 ACP, 380, 9MM, 32 Special, 38 Special, 357, 41, and 44 magnum cartridges, 10 mm auto, 44 special, 45 ACP, and the time tested 45 Long Colt. Other, more powerful cartridges are available but they are hard to shoot and may not be practical self-defense choice. In addition to the foregoing, some revolvers are also capable of firing 410 shotgun shells.
The difference between a rim fire cartridge and a centerfire cartridge is: the primer to ignite the powder charge in the case, of a rim fire cartridge, is located in the rim. The primer to ignite the powder charge in a centerfire handgun cartridge is located in the center of the cartridge case itself. Overall, the center fire ignition system is more reliable than the rim fire version.
The rim fire is capable of firing a lead projectile of either the hollow point or solid lead configuration. Centerfire handgun cartridges are capable of firing lead, jacketed or semi-jacketed hollow points, wad cutters, or soft nose projectiles. Shotgun gauges range from 410, 28, 20, 16, 12 and 10 gauge configurations. Shotgun shells are designed to propel lead, steel, or rifled slug projectiles. Shotguns and buck shot are a favorite among self-defense users, law enforcement, and the U.S. Military. A single load of buckshot is designed to propel a myriad shot pellets with a single firing. At close range a shotgun loaded with buckshot is devastating. In the law enforcement community it’s known as, the “Fight Stopper.”
MILITARY, LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SELF-DEFENSE AMMUNITION DIFFERENCES
Ammunition for law enforcement is vastly different from ammunition for civilian self- defense purposes. Ammunition for military purposes is vastly different from either law enforcement or civilian self-defense purposes. Military ammunition is designed for tracer capability as well as piercing armor, barriers, and individual protective vests with steel plate inserts – body armor. Law enforcement ammunition has to perform a myriad functions. It must have barrier piercing capability while maintaining a sufficient amount of mass and energy to successfully dispatch a bad guy on the other side. Personal protection or self-defense ammunition is designed to protect an individuals health and welfare by quickly dispatching an aggressor, at close range.
In the Military and Law Enforcement, I was designated a small arms expert and I served as a sniper on a law enforcement Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) team as well as the pistol team. On the pistol team, I specializing in fast draw and multiple target acquisition and engagement. Between the military and law enforcement, I’ve fired just about every conceivable small arms combat round ever designed and in use today.
In law enforcement, I carried the 38 Special, 9MM, and 45 ACP along with a 12 gauge shotgun loaded with either number 4 lead shot, 00 buckshot, or rifle slugs. The required shotgun round depended on the environment I was working in. In the Military I carried the M14 and the M16. The civilian version of the M16 is the AR 15. During my professional career, and as a combat veteran of many gunfights, I’ve witnessed individuals shot with a myriad ammunition types. I was Police Officer Standards and Training (POST), in the mid 1970’s.
Today, in the private security sector operating as a Certified Protection Professional (CPP), or (Body Guard) I carry a variety of self-defense weapons to include: A Sig 226 15 shot 9MM, a Kimber 45 ACP, A Smith and Wesson 9MM Shield, and a 12 Gauge Benelli semi-auto shotgun. Each firearm is loaded with quality ammunition for its intended purpose. The pistols are loaded with Sig Sauer V Crown hollow points and the 12 gauge rounds are either 00 buckshot or rifled slugs.
SELF-DEFENSE CARTRIDGE KNOCK-DOWN POWER
One of the misnomer’s promoted about various self-defense handgun cartridges is: most shooter are under the impression that one shot from a handgun will completely incapacitate an aggressor. This is another fallacy. The human torso is in the same class as a deer, i.e., a light thin skinned animal. In order to completely incapacitate an individual with one shot, the shooter must hit the brain or the spine. If a brain or spine shot isn’t accomplished, the shooter must have a handgun cartridge which carries enough energy to create hydrostatic shock. Hydrostatic shock is the concept that a penetrating projectile (such as a bullet) can produce a pressure wave that causes “remote neural damage,” “subtle damage in neural tissues” and/or “rapid incapacitating effects” in living targets.
Therefore a projectile with enough velocity and energy to produce sufficient expansion to creat a hydrostatic shock, makes the hollow point varieties the most preferable and desirable in self-defense handgun use.
CHOOSING THE RIGHT SELF-DEENSE FIREARM
Choosing the right firearm, for self-defense is an individual preference. My best advice is to go to a firing range where the shooter can rent self-defense firearms to try them out. Caliber is also an individual choice. Over-all, the best philosophy to adopt is to shoot a firearm and caliber the shooter is most proficient with, and has the most confidence in. There’s really no need in buying a 45 caliber pistol, if the shooter can’t handle the recoil and isn’t proficient with the firearm. After all, if the shooter is afraid of the firearm or can’t hit what he or she is shooting at, it’s a waste of money buying it in the first place.The apprehensive shooter won’t practice with the weapon enough, to become proficient.
For senior citizens and small stature shooters without a lot of hand grip strength, I always recommend a revolver. Pushing a button and opening a cylinder is a lot easier that pulling back the slide on some semi-auto pistols. Another reason I recommend a revolver over a semi-auto is: a person shooting a semi-auto has to possess the hand grip strength necessary to pull the slide back and clear a jam in an emergency situation.
Whichever, firearm a shooter chooses for self-defense the main recommendation is for the shooter to practice with the firearm enough to become proficient.
Each State as well as the Federal government has laws governing firearm possession, storage, and transportation. Before purchasing a firearm for self-defense the rule of thumb is to familiarize yourself with the firearms laws in your State of ownership. If the firearm owners intent is to qualify for a concealed carry permit, this information and requirements is readily available on the the internet. One mistake I see being made with firearm owners is mistaking owning a self-defense firearm automatically provides an individual to brandish a firearm and threaten a citizen with it. This philosophy, is a total fallacy. A rule of thumb to remember is, never pull your firearm unless your life, or the life of another is in eminent danger.
The most important aspect of being a responsible gun owner is to practicing safe firearms handling each time the firearm is picked up. The practice becomes more important when firearms are stored at home with young adults or children. It only takes a few seconds to ensure a firearm is safe and unloaded.
“UNTIL NEXT TIME, KEEP EM BETWEEN THE BRIDLE”